The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) told Congress Oct. 14 that between $580 million and $1.4 billion in public health benefits will result from the $49.2 million in 2008 diesel engine retrofitting grants, which are part of the 2005 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act. EPA says the grants will reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by 46,000 tons and particulate matter emissions by 2,200 tons over the lifetimes of the engines, which included trucks, buses, construction equipment and others. Nitrogen oxide is known to increase the severity of asthma attacks; the gas and particulate matter are both known to cause premature deaths. EPA also estimated the grants will reduce hydrocarbon emissions by 4,400 tons, carbon monoxide emissions by 14,700 tons and carbon dioxide emissions by 464,400 tons.